Tag Archives: K2

WASP-157b, a transiting Hot Jupiter observed with K2

Hot on to arXiv is our latest discovery paper. WASP-157b marks a jump upwards in WASP numbering, since we’ve somewhat rushed this one out. WASP-157 was flagged as a WASP candidate in 2014 and added to our program for radial-velocity (RV) and photometric follow-up. Meanwhile, being in the field of K2 Campaign 6, it was observed by Kepler from July to September 2015. Since K2 data are public, this meant that other groups would soon be on its trail.

A TRAPPIST observation of the transit, shortly before the K2 data were due to be released, along with prioritising it for CORALIE and HARPS RVs, rapidly accumulated enough observations to prove it was a planet. Keele student Teo Močnik then did a good job of analysing the K2 data and turning all the observations into a paper. A gap of only four days between the last CORALIE radial-velocity observation and the paper appearing on arXiv is efficient work!

Here is the K2 lightcurve showing the transits of WASP-157b:

Lightcurve of WASP-157b observed with Kepler K2

Masses for WASP-47’s planets

Since the discovery by K2 of two more transiting exoplanets orbiting WASP-47, plus a fourth planet at a much longer orbital period, this system has shot to the top of the priority lists. A team led by Fei Dai of MIT have thus pointed the 6.5-m Magellan/Clay telescope at WASP-47 to try to measure the radial-velocity signal, and hence the masses, of the two planets found by K2.

WASP-47 radial velocities

The figure shows the complex radial-velocity motion in a multiple-planet system. The blue curve is the radial-velocity motion caused by the 4.2-day-period hot-Jupiter WASP-47b, as originally found by the WASP project. The yellow curve is caused by the 0.79-day planet WASP-47e, the green curve by the 9-day planet WASP-47d, and the purple by the much-longer-period WASP-47c. The red line is then the sum of all the planets and the black dots are the measurements by Dai et al.

By fitting all of the data, Dai et al show that the innermost planet, WASP-47e, has a mass of 12 +/- 4 Earths, while the 9-day planet WASP-47c has a mass of 10 +/- 8 Earths. Both results are in line with previous mass estimates from transit-timing variations, which helps to validate mass measurements by both the RV and the TTV techniques.

Four planets around WASP-47!

As NASA’s Kepler mission covers fields in the ecliptic previously surveyed by WASP, it is obtaining photometry of unprecedented quality on some WASP planets. The big news this week is the discovery of two more transiting planets in the WASP-47 system.

WASP-47 had seemed to be a relatively routine hot-Jupiter system with the discovery of a Jupiter-sized planet in a 4-day orbit, reported in a batch of transiting planets from WASP-South by Hellier et al 2012.

But WASP-47 is anything but routine. Now Becker et al have announced that the Kepler K2 lightcurves show two more transiting planets: a super-Earth planet in an orbit of only 0.79 days, and a Neptune-sized planet in an orbit of 9.0 days. Being much smaller, these planets cause transits that are too shallow to have been seen in the original WASP data.

WASP-47 transits with Kepler K2

The super-Earth, labelled WASP-47c, has a radius of 1.8 Earths while the Neptune, labelled WASP-47d, has a radius of 3.6 Earths. The triple-planet system is dynamically stable, but the gravitational interaction causes perturbations in the orbits, leading to variations in the times of the transits.

Such “transit-timing variations” or TTVs lead to estimates of the planetary masses. Becker et al find that the hot Jupiter has a mass of 340 Earths (consistent with the mass of 360 Earths originally reported by Hellier et al from radial-velocity measurements), while the Neptune has a mass of 9 Earths. The super-Earth must be less massive than that, but current timing measurements are not sensitive enough to say more.

WASP-47 TTVs Transit timing variations

As if three planets were not enough, there is a probable fourth planet orbiting WASP-47. The Geneva Observatory group routinely monitor known WASP systems, taking radial-velocity measurements over years, to look for longer-period planets. Marion Neveu-VanMalle and colleagues have recently reported the detection of another Jupiter-mass planet orbiting WASP-47, this time in a much wider orbit of 571 days.

The WASP-47 system has now become hugely interesting for understanding exoplanets, and will trigger many additional observations of the system. For example, being bright enough to allow good radial-velocity data, it will provide a much-needed check that the mass estimates from TTVs match those from the more traditional radial-velocity technique.

The system will also be of strong interest to theorists, who will want to understand the formation and origin of a planetary system with this architecture. One immediate consequence is that it shows that a hot Jupiter can arise by inward migration through the proto-planetary disk, without destroying all other planets in its path.

WASP and Kepler K2

WASP-85 is a binary star, with the hot Jupiter WASP-85Ab orbiting the brighter star of the pair. It was in the Campaign 1 field of the revamped Kepler K2 mission, and thus we have the first extensive Kepler-quality lightcurve of a WASP planetary system.

K2 light curve of WASP-85

The WASP discovery paper by David Brown et al presents an initial look at the long-cadence K2 data. The upper plot shows the entire light curve, with obvious variability of the star (presumably because it is magnetically active) and narrow dips caused by the transits. The lower plot shows the data folded on the transit.

K2 light curve of WASP-85 transit

The higher-time-resolution “short cadence” data will be available soon, and should allow a high-quality analysis of this system. The WASP planets WASP-47b and WASP-75b are being observed in the current K2 Campaign 3, which should lead to more space-quality light curves of WASP systems.

In other news, WASP played a minor role in the discovery of the first K2 planet, a super-Earth-sized planet orbiting the bright K-dwarf star HIP 116454. There is extensive WASP data on this star, and while the transits (only 0.1% deep) are too shallow to see in WASP data, the WASP data contribute by showing a possible 16-day rotation period of the host star. The discovery paper by Andrew Vanderburg et al featured in a NASA press release.

The grazing transit of WASP-67b

The hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-67b is a curiosity, being the only known exoplanet with a grazing transit, such that not all of the planet transits the host-star’s disc. This means that the characteristic “second contact” and “third contact” points are missing from the transit lightcurves. These are the points where, usually, the whole planet is now in front of the star, and the transit is then flat-bottomed, apart from the relatively small effects of stellar “limb darkening”.

The four "contact" points of a planetary transit, illustrated for Mercury transiting our Sun.

The four “contact” points of a planetary transit, illustrated for Mercury transiting our Sun.

In WASP-67b’s grazing transit the planet is never completely in transit and thus the transit lightcurve has a continuously varying V shape. The grazing nature of WASP-67b was confirmed by a detailed study of new transit lightcurves by Mancini et al (2014), who used the GROND instrument on ESO’s 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla observatory.

The transit of WASP-67b from Mancini et al. (2014)

The transit of WASP-67b from Mancini et al. (2014)

The lack of second and third contact makes the system parameters hard to tie down, and thus obtaining a secure estimate of the planet’s radius and density requires Mancini et al’s high-quality lightcurves. WASP-67 is also notable for being in one of the target fields of the revamped Kepler spacecraft’s K2 mission, and thus we can expect ongoing detailed study of this system.

NASA’s Kepler looks at a WASP planet

NASA’s Kepler planet-hunting mission is entering the “K2” phase of its life. The loss of reaction wheels and thus pointing stability mean that it couldn’t continue looking at the original Kepler field, but Kepler engineers have worked out that it can point to fields in the ecliptic by using the pressure of the Sun’s light to stablise the spacecraft.

Kepler's transit of WASP-28b

Kepler’s transit of WASP-28b

In engineering observations to test his concept Kepler pointed at WASP-28b, a hot-Jupiter planet previously found by WASP-South. The lightcurve from a short test in Jan 2014 shows that Kepler is working well and can still detect planets.

Several more WASP planets, incuding WASP-47b, WASP-67b, WASP-75b and WASP-85b are in planned Kepler-2 fields, promising high-quality Kepler lightcurves to really nail down the masses and radii of these planets.